The Lab
(133502610)
Subscription terms. You can subscribe to this system for free.
C2Star
C2Star is a certification program for trading strategies. In order to become "C2Star Certified," a strategy must apply tight risk controls, and must exhibit excellent performance characteristics, including low drawdowns.
You can read more about C2Star certification requirements here.
Note that: all trading strategies are risky, and C2Star Certification does not imply that a strategy is low risk.
Trendfollowing
Tries to take advantage of long, medium or shortterm moves that seem to play out in various markets. Typically, trendfollowing analysis is backward looking; that is, it attempts to recognize and profit from alreadyestablished trends.Momentum
Aims to capitalize on the continuance of existing trends in the market. Trader takes a long position in an asset in an upward trend, and shortsells a security that has been in a downward trend. While similar to Trendfollowing, tends to be more forwardlooking (predicting oncoming trend), while Momentum is more backwardlooking (observing alreadyestablished price direction).Rate of Return Calculations
Overview
To comply with NFA regulations, we display Cumulative Rate of Return for strategies with a track record of less than one year. For strategies with longer track records, we display Annualized (Compounded) Rate of Return.
How Cumulative Rate of Return is calculated
= (Ending_equity  Starting_equity) / Starting_equity
Remember that, following NFA requirements, strategy subscription costs and estimated commissions are included in markedtomarket equity calculations.
All results are hypothetical.
Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec  YTD  

2021  +63.0%  +68.8%  +5.3%  +1.5%  +0.7%  +3.9%  +0.4%  +0.5%  +1.5%  +215.2% 
Model Account Details
A trading strategy on Collective2. Follow it in your broker account, or use a free simulated trading account.
Advanced users may want to use this information to adjust their AutoTrade scaling, or merely to understand the magnitudes of the nearby chart.
Started  $50,000  
Buy Power  $161,697  
Cash  $161,697  
Equity  $0  
Cumulative $  $111,697  
Total System Equity  $161,697  
Margined  $0  
Open P/L  $0 
Trading Record
Statistics

Strategy began1/21/2021

Suggested Minimum Cap$35,000

Strategy Age (days)247.97

Age8 months ago

What it tradesStocks

# Trades559

# Profitable264

% Profitable47.20%

Avg trade duration12.5 hours

Max peaktovalley drawdown40.74%

drawdown periodMarch 18, 2021  March 23, 2021

Cumul. Return215.2%

Avg win$1,690

Avg loss$1,133
 Model Account Values (Raw)

Cash$161,697

Margin Used$0

Buying Power$161,697
 Ratios

W:L ratio1.33:1

Sharpe Ratio2.09

Sortino Ratio4.28

Calmar Ratio18.212
 CORRELATION STATISTICS

Return of Strat Pcnt  Return of SP500 Pcnt (cumu)199.56%

Correlation to SP5000.16260

Return Percent SP500 (cumu) during strategy life15.63%
 Return Statistics

Ann Return (w trading costs)432.1%
 Slump

Current Slump as Pcnt Equity0.20%
 Instruments

Percent Trades Futuresn/a
 Slump

Current Slump, time of slump as pcnt of strategy life0.00%
 Instruments

Short Options  Percent Covered100.00%
 Return Statistics

Return Pcnt (Compound or Annual, agebased, NFA compliant)2.152%
 Instruments

Percent Trades Optionsn/a

Percent Trades Stocks1.00%

Percent Trades Forexn/a
 Return Statistics

Ann Return (Compnd, No Fees)458.8%
 Risk of Ruin (MonteCarlo)

Chance of 10% account loss64.50%

Chance of 20% account loss44.50%

Chance of 30% account loss31.00%

Chance of 40% account loss16.00%

Chance of 60% account loss (Monte Carlo)2.00%

Chance of 70% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a

Chance of 80% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a

Chance of 90% account loss (Monte Carlo)n/a
 Automation

Percentage Signals Automated2.62%
 Risk of Ruin (MonteCarlo)

Chance of 50% account loss9.50%
 Popularity

Popularity (Today)802

Popularity (Last 6 weeks)961
 Trading Style

Any stock shorts? 0/10
 Popularity

C2 Score964

Popularity (7 days, Percentile 1000 scale)929
 Management

No Subs Allowed Flag (1: no subs)0

Strat abandoned?0
 TradesOwnSystem Certification

Trades Own System?

TOS percentn/a
 Win / Loss

Avg Loss$1,134

Avg Win$1,690

Sum Trade PL (losers)$334,504.000
 AUM

AUM (AutoTrader num accounts)3
 Age

Num Months filled monthly returns table9
 Win / Loss

Sum Trade PL (winners)$446,201.000

# Winners264

Num Months Winners9
 Dividends

Dividends Received in Model Acct0
 AUM

AUM (AutoTrader live capital)244777
 Win / Loss

# Losers295

% Winners47.2%
 Frequency

Avg Position Time (mins)750.15

Avg Position Time (hrs)12.50

Avg Trade Length0.5 days

Last Trade Ago1
 Leverage

Daily leverage (average)0.49

Daily leverage (max)2.60
 Regression

Alpha0.60

Beta1.03

Treynor Index0.53
 Maximum Adverse Excursion (MAE)

MAE:Equity, average, all trades0.01

MAE:PL  worst single value for strategy

MAE:PL (avg, winning trades)

MAE:PL (avg, losing trades)

MAE:PL (avg, all trades)0.51

MAE:Equity, average, winning trades0.01

MAE:Equity, average, losing trades0.01

Avg(MAE) / Avg(PL)  All trades8.731

MAE:Equity, losing trades only, 95th Percentile Value for this strat

MAE:Equity, win trades only, 95th Percentile Value for this strat

MAE:Equity, 95th Percentile Value for this strat0.00

Avg(MAE) / Avg(PL)  Winning trades0.303

Avg(MAE) / Avg(PL)  Losing trades1.229

HoldandHope Ratio0.115
 Analysis based on MONTHLY values, full history
 RATIO STATISTICS
 Ratio statistics of excess return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean2.90406

SD1.81158

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)1.60306

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)1.39246

df6.00000

t1.22435

p0.13335

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio1.16971

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio4.26024

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation1.29195

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation4.07686
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio3148.92000

Upside Potential Ratio3150.22000

Upside part of mean2.90527

Downside part of mean0.00121

Upside SD1.87504

Downside SD0.00092

N nonnegative terms6.00000

N negative terms1.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations7.00000

Mean of predictor0.23918

Mean of criterion2.90406

SD of predictor0.09164

SD of criterion1.81158

Covariance0.03908

r0.23538

b (slope, estimate of beta)4.65317

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)4.01702

Mean Square Error3.71999

DF error5.00000

t(b)0.54155

p(b)0.69431

t(a)1.23377

p(a)0.13606

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta26.74150

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta17.43520

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha4.35284

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha12.38690

Treynor index (mean / b)0.62410

Jensen alpha (a)4.01702
 Ratio statistics of excess log return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean1.95807

SD1.11105

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)1.76236

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)1.53084

df6.00000

t1.34603

p0.11346

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio1.04480

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio4.44535

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation1.17758

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation4.23926
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio2127.36000

Upside Potential Ratio2128.67000

Upside part of mean1.95928

Downside part of mean0.00121

Upside SD1.17371

Downside SD0.00092

N nonnegative terms6.00000

N negative terms1.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations7.00000

Mean of predictor0.23291

Mean of criterion1.95807

SD of predictor0.08832

SD of criterion1.11105

Covariance0.02151

r0.21920

b (slope, estimate of beta)2.75746

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)2.60031

Mean Square Error1.41014

DF error5.00000

t(b)0.50236

p(b)0.68162

t(a)1.29182

p(a)0.12645

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta16.86800

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta11.35300

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha2.57424

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha7.77486

Treynor index (mean / b)0.71010

Jensen alpha (a)2.60031
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (parametric)
 assuming log normal returns and losses (using central moments from Sharpe statistics)

VaR(95%)0.30538

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.38841
 assuming Pareto losses only (using partial moments from Sortino statistics)

VaR(95%)0.00008

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.00023
 ORDER STATISTICS
 Quartiles of return rates

Number of observations7.00000

Minimum1.00162

Quartile 11.01098

Median1.04101

Quartile 31.11004

Maximum2.42566

Mean of quarter 11.00494

Mean of quarter 21.02735

Mean of quarter 31.10202

Mean of quarter 41.77186

Inter Quartile Range0.09907

Number outliers low0.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.00000

Mean of outliers low0.00000

Number of outliers high1.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.14286

Mean of outliers high2.42566
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (based on Ex

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.00000

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.00000

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.00000

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.00000
 DRAW DOWN STATISTICS
 Quartiles of draw downs

Number of observations0.00000

Minimum0.00000

Quartile 10.00000

Median0.00000

Quartile 30.00000

Maximum0.00000

Mean of quarter 10.00000

Mean of quarter 20.00000

Mean of quarter 30.00000

Mean of quarter 40.00000

Inter Quartile Range0.00000

Number outliers low0.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.00000

Mean of outliers low0.00000

Number of outliers high0.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.00000

Mean of outliers high0.00000
 Risk estimates based on draw downs (based on Extreme Value T

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.00000

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.00000

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.00000

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.00000
 COMBINED STATISTICS

Annualized return (arithmetic extrapolation)3.74591

Compounded annual return (geometric extrapolation)6.28619

Calmar ratio (compounded annual return / max draw down)0.00000

Compounded annual return / average of 25% largest draw downs0.00000

Compounded annual return / Expected Shortfall lognormal16.18430

0.00000

0.00000
 Analysis based on DAILY values, full history
 RATIO STATISTICS
 Ratio statistics of excess return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean1.99876

SD0.74738

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)2.67434

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)2.66273

df173.00000

t2.17942

p0.39640

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.24909

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio5.09200

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.24137

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation5.08409
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio6.21581

Upside Potential Ratio10.05740

Upside part of mean3.23405

Downside part of mean1.23530

Upside SD0.68353

Downside SD0.32156

N nonnegative terms78.00000

N negative terms96.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations174.00000

Mean of predictor0.19897

Mean of criterion1.99876

SD of predictor0.12721

SD of criterion0.74738

Covariance0.01659

r0.17450

b (slope, estimate of beta)1.02521

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)2.20300

Mean Square Error0.54472

DF error172.00000

t(b)2.32423

p(b)0.58725

t(a)2.42087

p(a)0.40924

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta1.89586

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.15455

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.40674

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha3.99874

Treynor index (mean / b)1.94961

Jensen alpha (a)2.20274
 Ratio statistics of excess log return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean1.73738

SD0.70188

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)2.47533

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)2.46459

df173.00000

t2.01724

p0.40386

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.05271

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio4.89101

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.04556

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation4.88362
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio5.13481

Upside Potential Ratio8.94884

Upside part of mean3.02787

Downside part of mean1.29049

Upside SD0.62196

Downside SD0.33835

N nonnegative terms78.00000

N negative terms96.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations174.00000

Mean of predictor0.19082

Mean of criterion1.73738

SD of predictor0.12730

SD of criterion0.70188

Covariance0.01458

r0.16318

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.89970

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)1.90907

Mean Square Error0.48230

DF error172.00000

t(b)2.16912

p(b)0.58159

t(a)2.23059

p(a)0.41616

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta1.71840

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.08099

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.21973

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha3.59840

Treynor index (mean / b)1.93107

Jensen alpha (a)1.90907
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (parametric)
 assuming log normal returns and losses (using central moments from Sharpe statistics)

VaR(95%)0.06265

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.07936
 assuming Pareto losses only (using partial moments from Sortino statistics)

VaR(95%)0.01112

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.02570
 ORDER STATISTICS
 Quartiles of return rates

Number of observations174.00000

Minimum0.88289

Quartile 11.00000

Median1.00000

Quartile 31.00194

Maximum1.31255

Mean of quarter 10.98159

Mean of quarter 21.00000

Mean of quarter 31.00065

Mean of quarter 41.04837

Inter Quartile Range0.00194

Number outliers low15.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.08621

Mean of outliers low0.94670

Number of outliers high31.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.17816

Mean of outliers high1.06749
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (based on Ex

Extreme Value Index (moments method)1.89441

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.00373

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.00000

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.15714

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.01370

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.03289
 DRAW DOWN STATISTICS
 Quartiles of draw downs

Number of observations8.00000

Minimum0.00156

Quartile 10.00756

Median0.05613

Quartile 30.14046

Maximum0.26593

Mean of quarter 10.00204

Mean of quarter 20.01389

Mean of quarter 30.11415

Mean of quarter 40.21202

Inter Quartile Range0.13291

Number outliers low0.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.00000

Mean of outliers low0.00000

Number of outliers high0.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.00000

Mean of outliers high0.00000
 Risk estimates based on draw downs (based on Extreme Value T

Extreme Value Index (moments method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.00000

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.00000

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.00000

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.00000

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.00000
 COMBINED STATISTICS

Annualized return (arithmetic extrapolation)3.35726

Compounded annual return (geometric extrapolation)4.84326

Calmar ratio (compounded annual return / max draw down)18.21250

Compounded annual return / average of 25% largest draw downs22.84300

Compounded annual return / Expected Shortfall lognormal61.03080

0.00000

0.00000
 Analysis based on DAILY values, last 6 months only
 RATIO STATISTICS
 Ratio statistics of excess return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.71995

SD0.27990

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)2.57218

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)2.55731

df130.00000

t1.81881

p0.42124

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.22194

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio5.35671

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.23187

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation5.34650
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio57.55750

Upside Potential Ratio62.71920

Upside part of mean0.78451

Downside part of mean0.06456

Upside SD0.28208

Downside SD0.01251

N nonnegative terms47.00000

N negative terms84.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations131.00000

Mean of predictor0.23906

Mean of criterion0.71995

SD of predictor0.10915

SD of criterion0.27990

Covariance0.00140

r0.04589

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.11767

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.74808

Mean Square Error0.07878

DF error129.00000

t(b)0.52176

p(b)0.52920

t(a)1.86743

p(a)0.39717

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.56390

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.32855

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.04450

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha1.54066

Treynor index (mean / b)6.11814

Jensen alpha (a)0.74808
 Ratio statistics of excess log return rates
 Statistics related to Sharpe ratio

Mean0.68373

SD0.25999

Sharpe ratio (Glass type estimate)2.62984

Sharpe ratio (Hedges UMVUE)2.61464

df130.00000

t1.85958

p0.41952

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio0.16520

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for Sharpe Ratio5.41504

Lowerbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation0.17533

Upperbound of 95% CI (Gibbons, Hedeker & Davis approximation5.40460
 Statistics related to Sortino ratio

Sortino ratio54.55680

Upside Potential Ratio59.71430

Upside part of mean0.74836

Downside part of mean0.06464

Upside SD0.26212

Downside SD0.01253

N nonnegative terms47.00000

N negative terms84.00000
 Statistics related to linear regression on benchmark

N of observations131.00000

Mean of predictor0.23302

Mean of criterion0.68373

SD of predictor0.10913

SD of criterion0.25999

Covariance0.00124

r0.04380

b (slope, estimate of beta)0.10435

a (intercept, estimate of alpha)0.70804

Mean Square Error0.06799

DF error129.00000

t(b)0.49799

p(b)0.52788

t(a)1.90352

p(a)0.39525

VAR (95 Confidence Intrvl)0.06300

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.51894

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for beta0.31024

Lowerbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha0.02790

Upperbound of 95% confidence interval for alpha1.44399

Treynor index (mean / b)6.55215

Jensen alpha (a)0.70804
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (parametric)
 assuming log normal returns and losses (using central moments from Sharpe statistics)

VaR(95%)0.02353

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.03004
 assuming Pareto losses only (using partial moments from Sortino statistics)

VaR(95%)0.00065

Expected Shortfall on VaR0.00141
 ORDER STATISTICS
 Quartiles of return rates

Number of observations131.00000

Minimum0.99460

Quartile 11.00000

Median1.00000

Quartile 31.00070

Maximum1.18140

Mean of quarter 10.99929

Mean of quarter 21.00000

Mean of quarter 31.00017

Mean of quarter 41.01188

Inter Quartile Range0.00070

Number outliers low8.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.06107

Mean of outliers low0.99738

Number of outliers high19.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.14504

Mean of outliers high1.01980
 Risk estimates for a oneperiod unit investment (based on Ex

Extreme Value Index (moments method)2.34801

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.00087

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.00133

Extreme Value Index (regression method)0.11177

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.00098

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.00244
 DRAW DOWN STATISTICS
 Quartiles of draw downs

Number of observations9.00000

Minimum0.00014

Quartile 10.00024

Median0.00050

Quartile 30.00252

Maximum0.00923

Mean of quarter 10.00017

Mean of quarter 20.00042

Mean of quarter 30.00204

Mean of quarter 40.00897

Inter Quartile Range0.00229

Number outliers low0.00000

Percentage of outliers low0.00000

Mean of outliers low0.00000

Number of outliers high2.00000

Percentage of outliers high0.22222

Mean of outliers high0.00897
 Risk estimates based on draw downs (based on Extreme Value T

Extreme Value Index (moments method)958.61700

VaR(95%) (moments method)0.00573

Expected Shortfall (moments method)0.00000

Extreme Value Index (regression method)4.57589

VaR(95%) (regression method)0.01982

Last 4 Months  Pcnt Negativen/a

Expected Shortfall (regression method)0.01982

Strat Max DD how much worse than SP500 max DD during strat life?311805000

Max Equity Drawdown (num days)5
 COMBINED STATISTICS

Annualized return (arithmetic extrapolation)0.85469

Compounded annual return (geometric extrapolation)1.03732

Calmar ratio (compounded annual return / max draw down)112.35800

Compounded annual return / average of 25% largest draw downs115.60800

Compounded annual return / Expected Shortfall lognormal34.52710
Strategy Description
Most values on this page (including the Strategy Equity Chart, above) have been adjusted by estimated trading commissions and subscription costs.
Some advanced users find it useful to see "raw" Model Account values. These numbers do not include any commissions, fees, subscription costs, or dividend actions.
Strategy developers can "archive" strategies at any time. This means the strategy Model Account is reset to its initial level and the trade list cleared. However, all archived track records are permanently preserved for evaluation by potential subscribers.
About the results you see on this Web site
Past results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
These results are based on simulated or hypothetical performance results that have certain inherent limitations. Unlike the results shown in an actual performance record, these results do not represent actual trading. Also, because these trades have not actually been executed, these results may have underor overcompensated for the impact, if any, of certain market factors, such as lack of liquidity. Simulated or hypothetical trading programs in general are also subject to the fact that they are designed with the benefit of hindsight. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to these being shown.
In addition, hypothetical trading does not involve financial risk, and no hypothetical trading record can completely account for the impact of financial risk in actual trading. For example, the ability to withstand losses or to adhere to a particular trading program in spite of trading losses are material points which can also adversely affect actual trading results. There are numerous other factors related to the markets in general or to the implementation of any specific trading program, which cannot be fully accounted for in the preparation of hypothetical performance results and all of which can adversely affect actual trading results.
Material assumptions and methods used when calculating results
The following are material assumptions used when calculating any hypothetical monthly results that appear on our web site.
 Profits are reinvested. We assume profits (when there are profits) are reinvested in the trading strategy.
 Starting investment size. For any trading strategy on our site, hypothetical results are based on the assumption that you invested the starting amount shown on the strategy's performance chart. In some cases, nominal dollar amounts on the equity chart have been rescaled downward to make current goforward trading sizes more manageable. In these cases, it may not have been possible to trade the strategy historically at the equity levels shown on the chart, and a higher minimum capital was required in the past.
 All fees are included. When calculating cumulative returns, we try to estimate and include all the fees a typical trader incurs when AutoTrading using AutoTrade technology. This includes the subscription cost of the strategy, plus any pertrade AutoTrade fees, plus estimated broker commissions if any.
 "Max Drawdown" Calculation Method. We calculate the Max Drawdown statistic as follows. Our computer software looks at the equity chart of the system in question and finds the largest percentage amount that the equity chart ever declines from a local "peak" to a subsequent point in time (thus this is formally called "Maximum Peak to Valley Drawdown.") While this is useful information when evaluating trading systems, you should keep in mind that past performance does not guarantee future results. Therefore, future drawdowns may be larger than the historical maximum drawdowns you see here.
Trading is risky
There is a substantial risk of loss in futures and forex trading. Online trading of stocks and options is extremely risky. Assume you will lose money. Don't trade with money you cannot afford to lose.
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Suggested Minimum Capital
This is our estimate of the minimum amount of capital to follow a strategy, assuming you use the smallest reasonable AutoTrade Scaling % for the strategy.